Top to bottom, left to right: Historical city centre onSuraPenza OblastTheater of Drama, Suspension bridge over Sura River, Monument of Military and Labour Glory, Memorial complex of Glory, Kind Angel of Peace and State Emblem of the USSR monuments on Pushkin st.

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Penza(Russian,IPA:[ˈpʲɛnzə]) is acityand theadministrative centerofPenza OblastRussia, located on theSura River, 625 kilometers (388mi) southeast ofMoscow. Population:517,311(2010 Census);6518,025(2002 Census);11542,612(1989 Census).12

Penza was founded as a Russian frontier fortress-city,3and to this day, remnants of the Lomovskaya sentry line built in 1640 have been preserved at the western edge of the city, and remains of earth ramparts dating from the mid-16th century are preserved in the city center. Until 1663, Penza was a wooden stockade with only a small settlement. In May 1663, the architect Yuri Kontransky arrived in Penza on the Tsars orders to direct the construction of a fortress city,citation neededas part of a wider fortress building program to protectRussiafrom attacks byCrimean Tatars. The initial construction consisted of a woodenKremlin, a village, and quarters for the nobility, small tradesmen, and merchants. TheMuscovitegovernment placed thehere, who constructed a fortress and called it Cherkassy Ostroh, from which the regional city of Penza has developed, thanks to the arrival of new settlers, particularly Russians. The Ukrainian roots of the city and its first settlers are now remembered in the names of Cherkasskaya street, along with the Cherkassy historical district.13

In 1774, the insurgent army led byYemelyan Pugachevoccupied Penza after the citizens of the city welcomed the rebelliousCossacks. The first stone houses started to appear after 1801, and by 1809 Penzas population had grown to more than 13,000 people.

In 1918,Vladimir Leninsent a telegram to communists in the Penza area, complaining about the insurrection of fivekulakdistricts. He urged thepublic hangingof 100 landlords, richmen, bloodsuckers, grain seizure, and hostage taking. This telegram has been used in several historical works on the period and on Lenin.1415161718During theRussian Civil War, theCzechoslovak Legionslaunched an anti-Bolshevik uprising in Penza.

During the Soviet period, the city developed as a regional industrial center. TheUral mainframewas made here between 1959 and 1964.

Penza is theadministrative centerof theoblast.1Within theframework of administrative divisions, it is incorporated as thecity of oblast significanceof Penzaan administrative unit with a status equal to that of thedistricts.1As amunicipal division, the city of oblast significance of Penza is incorporated asPenza Urban Okrug.8

Penza is a majorrailway junctionand lies on the M5 highway linkingMoscowandChelyabinskPenza Airportserves domestic flights. Localpublic transportincludes buses,trolleybusesandmarshrutkas(routed taxis).

Currently, the city of Penza is seen as a regional center for higher education. It has sixuniversities(thePenza State University, the Pedagogic University, the Academy of Agriculture, the Technology Institute, the University of Architecture and Construction, and the Artillery and Engineering Institute), 13colleges and 77public schools. Besides this, Penza is home to threetheatres, fourmuseums, and threeart galleriesincludingThe Museum of One Painting named after G. V. Myasnikov.

Penza State Pedagogical University (unified with Penza State University in 2012)

Penza State University of Architecture and Construction

Penza branch of the Moscows Institute of Economics, Management and Law

Penza branch of the Russian State University of Innovative Technologies and Entrepreneurship

Penza has ahumid continental climateKöppen climate classificationDfb) with long, cold winters and warm summers. A heat wave in the months of June, July, and August 2010, raised temperatures from previous norms often by 15C (27F) in Penza. Some of the higher fluctuations in temperatures were recorded with seven straight days of temperatures +40C (104F) and higher compared to the previous year where the higher temperatures for the same period were, on average, 20C (36F) lower.1920

Penza first hosted theRussian Sidecarcross Grand Prixin2009, and did so again in2010, on August15.22

Dizel Penzais Penzas professional hockey team, playing in theVHLDizelist Penzais a junior club playing in theNMHL.

The city football teamFC Zenit Penzawas established in 1918 but now plays in the Russian Amateur League. Penza has also a professionalrugby unionclub,Imperia-Dynamo Penza, from RussiasProfessional Rugby League.

Aminor planet3189 Penza, discovered bySovietastronomerNikolai Chernykhin 1978, is named after the city.23

Denis Ablyazin, world and Olympic medalist in artistic gymnastics

Natalia Lavrova, world and Olympic champion in rhythmic gymnastics

Mikhail Lermontov, poet, grew up in nearby manor ofTarkhany

See also:List of twin towns and sister cities in Russia

Center of Theatrical Arts «House of Meyerhold»

Article2 of the Charter of Penza states that the city may have an anthem, providing one is adopted by the City Duma. As of 2015

). . . . . , 3- . . 19. . 1975. 648 ., .; 29 . . . 1663 – .

Official website of Penza.Biography of Viktor Nikolayevich Kuvaytsev, Head of Penza

Russian Federal State Statistics Service (2011). 2010 . 12010 All-Russian Population Census, vol.1.

2010 [2010 All-Russia Population Census]

(in Russian).Federal State Statistics Service.

26. 1 2018 . Federal State Statistics Service

. – . (

Russian Federal State Statistics Service(May 21, 2004). , , , , 3 Population of Russia, Its Federal Districts, Federal Subjects, Districts, Urban Localities, Rural LocalitiesAdministrative Centers, and Rural Localities with Population of Over 3,000

2002 [All-Russia Population Census of 2002]

1989. , , , , , -All Union Population Census of 1989: Present Population of Union and Autonomous Republics, Autonomous Oblasts and Okrugs, Krais, Oblasts, Districts, Urban Settlements, and Villages Serving as District Administrative Centers.

1989 [All-Union Population Census of 1989]

(in Russian). : [Institute of Demography at the National Research University: Higher School of Economics]. 1989 via

Ukrainians in USSR beyond the borders of Ukrainian SSR: p. 79 (1974) Winnipeg: Marunchak M. / ; ї і і . ііґ: і, 1974. 248 c.: і.

Lenin Collected Works, Progress Publishers, 1971, Moscow, Volume 36, page 489. Telegram to Yevgenia Bosch

An exchange of letters on the BBC documentary Lenins Secret Files

Telegram to the Penza Gubernia Executive Committee of the Soviets in J. Brooks and G. Chernyavskiys, p.77, Lenin and the Making of the Soviet State: A Brief History with Documents (2007). Bedford/St Martins: Boston and New York: p.77

Translation of hanging order by Robert Service, p. 365, Lenin a Biography (2000). London: Macmillan

– : .

– : .

Weather and Climate-The Climate of Penza(in Russian). Weather and Climate ( )

August 12, 2011, at theWayback MachineFIM website, accessed: October 30, 2009

Official site of Penza. Archived fromthe originalon July 15, 2009

.774-9 2005 . « – », . 2484- 28 2013 .« 15 – ». . : , 6, .49, 18 2005 .

(Legislative Assembly of Penza Oblast.Law774-ZPOofMarch9, 2005

On the Administrative-Territorial Structure of Penza Oblast

, as amended by the Law2484-ZPO ofNovember28, 2013

On Amending Article15 of the Law of Penza Oblast On the Administrative-Territorial Structure of Penza Oblast

. Effective as ofthe day ten days after the day of the official publication.).

.690-2 2004 . « », . 2681- 4 2015 .« ». 10 . : , 17 ( ), 16 2004 .

(Legislative Assembly of Penza Oblast.Law690-ZPOofNovember2, 2004

On the Borders of the Municipal Formations of Penza Oblast

, as amended by the Law2681-ZPO ofMarch4, 2015

On Amending the Law of Penza Oblast On the Borders of the Municipal Formations of Penza Oblast

. Effective as ofafter 10days from the official publication.).

Articles containing potentially dated statements from 2015

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